Full Project – INFLUENCE OF PARENTING ON THE ATTITUDE OF STUDENTS TO LEARNING IN IKOYI LAGOS STATE
1.1 Background to the Study
Parenting style depends on the behaviour and attitude of parents. Parenting style is a psychological construct which represented standard strategies parents use in raising their children. The term is a complex activity that includes many specific behaviors that work individually and collectively to influence the child. Two major variables identified by Baumrind (1971) centered on parenting styles and child outcomes. One of them was the responsiveness of parents to their child’s needs in a reasonable, nurturing and supportive way. Parenting style captures two important elements of parenting: parental responsiveness and parental demand (Maccoby & Martin, 1983).
Education in the second half of the Twentieth Century has been characterized by increases in the provision of educational programs for preschool-age student. The largest wave of preschool education activity has been the federally funded Head Start program, established in the 1960s to help student overcome the cognitive, social, emotional, and physical deficits that frequently accompany growing up in economically deprived homes. The study of parent attitudes, belief systems, and thinking has taken place along with changing conceptions of child-rearing. These changes have emphasized the bidirectional nature of interactions, with children influencing parents as well as parents influencing children. Accordingly, an interesting extension of research on attitudes and cognition has to do with how children’s actions affect parents’ attitudes and thoughts.
The involvement of parents in young student’s education is a fundamental right and obligation. Both the OECD (2006) and UNICEF (2008a) argue that early child education services should recognise mothers’ and fathers’ right to be informed, comment on and participate in key decisions concerning their child. Research shows that there is a substantial need and demand for a parental component in early child education services (Desforges and Abouchaar, 2003).
When schools, families, and community groups work together to support learning, student tend to do better in school, stay in school longer, and like school more. Parenting attitude over the past decade, indicates that regardless of family income or background, “students with involved parents are more likely to earn higher grades and test scores, enroll in higher-level programs, be promoted, pass their classes, earn credits, attend school regularly, have better social skills, show improved behavior, adapt well to school and graduate to postsecondary education” (Henderson and Map, 2002).
A parent is the child’s first and most important teacher in life and he or she is expected to play an active role in the child’s preschool journey because it is believed a parent and child should grow together and have a rewarding preschool experience. This follows subsequently by school life where academic performance is expected to be high. The parent is supposed to be supportive to the child in all aspects which include socially, physically, mentally and also emotionally (Epstein, 2001). Studies have indicated that student whose parents and/or other significant adults share in their formal education tend to do better in school. Some benefits that have been identified that measure parenting attitude in education include; higher grades and test scores, long term academic achievement, positive attitudes and behaviors and more successful programs (Epstein, 2001).
The first six years of a child’s life have been recognized as the most critical ones for optimal development. Since the process of human development is essentially cumulative in nature, investment in programmes for the youngest student in the range of 0-6 years has begun to be accepted as the very foundation for basic education and lifelong learning and development. Over the years, the field of childcare, inspired by research and front-line experiences, has developed into a coherent vision for Secondary School care and education.
Schweinhart (1985) points out that one-fourth of all student under the age of six are living in poverty, and that three-fifths of the mothers of three- and four-yearold student now work outside the home. However, fewer than 20 percent of the nation’s three and four-year-olds from poor families are currently enrolled in Head Start programs.
In addition to the generally recognized need to provide some kind of extra support to student from low-income homes, there is another reason for the dramatic increase in educational programs for student before first grade. This is the increase, alluded to above, of mothers in the workforce. Many parents who are not at home with their student in the daytime are not satisfied with unstructured day care or babysitting, preferring that their student participate in more formal learning experiences. Some of the increased interest in and push for structured preschool programs comes from the unfortunate notion, held by some, that education is a race to be won, and those who start first are more likely to finish ahead.
A great many educators and researchers view Secondary School education as beneficial to student’s cognitive and social development. These proponents including virtually all of the researchers and theorists whose work was consulted in order to prepare this document base their conviction on personal observation and on the many research studies linking Secondary School programs to desirable outcomes. It is important to note, however, that some educators, such as Elkind (1988), Katz (1987), Zigler (1986), and representatives of the National Association for the Education of Young Student (1986) warn against too much formal, highly structured education for very young student. These and other writers have called attention to three major objections to school-based programs.
Puleo (1988) call attention to the issues surrounding the half-day/full-day kindergarten controversy. They note that some educators and researchers feel that the additional hours are too fatiguing for young student and that, in any case, increasing allocated time does not necessarily enhance program quality. Given this array of assertions and reservations about preschool and kindergarten programs, it is important to examine what well-designed research studies reveal about the long and short-term effects of Secondary School education. It is also important to determine whether different effects are produced by different models for Secondary School programs–to determine, for example, whether didactic, teacher-directed programs or less-structured, “discovery” models produce superior cognitive and behavioral outcomes.
Parents and teachers, as stakeholders in the system, need to be aware and conscious of the need to insist on standards of safety at the centers and also for good personnel at these centers. The turnover rate of childcare staff, burnout and emotional distress would be real concerns that parents must be aware of and guard against in the interest of their student. However, it must be noted that at the other end of the continuum of the economic strata, there is a very large group of student who do not even have the luxury of holding a pencil between their fingers and scribbling on paper or even holding a book in their hands. Addressing student at such extremes of the economic divide is not just a concern but also a big challenge.
The school education component of students has demonstrated a positive impact on retention rates and achievement levels in primary grades. However, it is important to note that attendance in schools does not automatically guarantee better academic achievement. ‘Quality’ aspects, such as a healthy environment, stimulating activities and encouraging, care-giving teachers, are imperative to ensure all-round development in student.
There is sufficient evidence to indicate that Secondary School represents the best opportunity for breaking the inter-generational cycle of multiple disadvantages-chronic under-nutrition, poor health, gender discrimination and low socio-economic status. Family and community-based holistic interventions in Secondary School to promote and protect good health, nutrition, cognitive and psycho-social development have multiplicative benefits throughout the life cycle.
It is vital that all the stakeholders (student, parents, neighbourhood and society at large) in the system and advocates for the well-being of student become aware of the need for adherence to the spirit and letter of education rather than be driven by competition and/or commercialization. The issues of quality and accountability for the use of public funds and childcare as a public service need to be at the forefront.
Parents and teachers, as stakeholders in the system, need to be aware and conscious of the need to insist on standards of safety at the centers and also for good personnel at these centers. The turnover rate of childcare staff, burnout and emotional distress would be real concerns that parents must be aware of and guard against in the interest of their student.
However, it must be noted that at the other end of the continuum of the economic strata, there is a very large group of student who do not even have the luxury of holding a pencil between their fingers and scribbling on paper or even holding a book in their hands. Addressing student at such extremes of the economic divide is not just a concern but also a big challenge.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
The problems that have always reared its head in the society is the issue of having adequate hands that can teach the student at the early stage of their life. It was the reason for the study embarked by the Federal Ministry of Education, the World Bank and UNICEF to ascertain the capacity of the existing teacher education institutes in other to upgrade the skills of in-service teacher and pre-service early child education in Nigeria.
Parents of preschool student are often faced with unique challenges that hinder them from meeting the learners’ needs. They include; insufficient time, career or job type, level of education, order of priority, set home environment, opinion to voluntary work at school, time taken to respond to school activities for example buying instruction materials, attending parents meetings, conferences, sports ,academic clinic day, disciplinary cases and also discussing the academic progress of the child. If the above needs are not attended to, there is a likelihood of child not performing well because he or she is not adequately supported. Insufficient parenting attitude may lead to poor performance of the child academically
In the child’s environment (the family, the neighbourhood, risk factors have a negative effect on the child’s development of intellectual skills, school achievement, social-emotional competence, social adjustment and health even to the extent that poverty leads to irreversible effects on brain functioning (Hackman and Farrah, 2009).
Edin and Lein (1997) show that, in poor families, child care and medical care arrangements are unstable or of low quality. Additionally, their economic hardship often results in chronic stress. This is more prevalent among low-income populations because they have fewer resources to mitigate these events. The connection between economic status and mental health is important because poor mental health is related to harsh, inconsistent, less involved parenting and less caring interactions. In turn, this has been associated with behavioural problems, for example, student are more often involved in fights and less capable of collaborating with peers; and it can cause severe attention issues leading to decreasing school performance.
Despite the central role for responsive parenting in different research frameworks, much of what we know about this parenting style comes from descriptive studies. This means that we can only infer the importance of responsive parenting. To assume a causal influence of responsive parenting on child outcomes would require data from experimental studies with random assignment.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to critically examine the influence of parenting on the attitude of students to learning in Ikoyi Lagos. The specific objectives are to:
- Examine the impact of parents’ training on students’ learning outcomes.
- Investigate if the socio-demographic characteristics of the parents have an influence on students’ learning outcomes.
- Examine the factors affecting parenting attitude in Secondary School education; and,
- Recommend measures to increase the rate and involvement of parents in students’ learning outcomes.
1.4 Research Question
- To what extent will parents influence early students’ learning outcomes?
- Does the socio-economic characteristics have any influence on students’ learning outcomes?
- What are the factors affecting parenting attitude in Secondary School education?
- What are the measure that will increase the rate and involvement of parents in students’ learning outcomes?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following hypothesis was developed for the study:
Ho: There is no significant relationship between parenting attitude and students’ learning outcomes.
H1: There is significant relationship between parenting attitude and students’ learning outcomes.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study examined the influence of parenting on the attitude of students to learning in Ikoyi Lagos. The study will be limited to five selected Pre-Nursery Schools in District III, Ikoyi, Lagos.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The significance of the study lies in the hope that the findings may be of benefit to:
The Ministry of education where the study may be used to formulate policy that will enhance Secondary School education in the classroom.
Furthermore, the study will be used by the Ministry of Education and other policy making organs of government especially in the measures they adopt in resolving the identified factors militating against Secondary School education.
The findings of this study will reveal the best ways or measures to be taken in order to improve the quality of Secondary School education in Lagos state; which helps to promote parenting attitude, teachers’ productivity and effective school system as a whole.
1.8 Operational Definitions of Terms
Relative to this study, definitions to the following terms are provided in order to clarify each in the context of the topic:
Parenting attitude: Parenting attitude is a behavioural display of parents towards their wards.
Learning outcomes: Learning outcomes are statements that describe significant and essential learning that learners have achieved, and can reliably demonstrate at the end of a course or program.
Classroom: This a room in which a class of pupils or students is taught.
Education: Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, culture, and habits.
Family Values: These are values supposedly learned within a traditional family unit, typically those of high moral standards and discipline.
Parent: A parent consists of a person whose gamete resulted in a child, a male through the sperm, and a female through the ovum.
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Full Project – INFLUENCE OF PARENTING ON THE ATTITUDE OF STUDENTS TO LEARNING IN IKOYI LAGOS STATE