ASSESSMENT OF TEACHER CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA
- Background to the Study
The classroom is that space bounded by the wall and roof which a teacher houses his students/students for the purpose of giving instruction to such students /students. In other words, it is a shelter for both teachers and learners so as to engage in educative activities. Classroom teaching is a complex task in a complex environment. The classroom is the immediate management environment for formal knowledge acquisition. It is made up of the teacher, the learners, learning equipment and the environment. Usually a secondary school teacher is in a modest-sized room with between 20 to 40 students. Kimberly (2001) stated the five characteristics of a classroom as security, open communication, mutual liking, shared goals and connectedness.
Most formal organizations like secondary schools are aimed at effective and efficient management of the human and material resources available for the attainment of organizational goals. The classroom teacher is charged with lots of functions to perform in the teaching and learning process. One of the most challenging functions of the classroom teacher is teacher classroom management and control. The teacher’s effectiveness in teaching is assessed by his ability to use varied teacher classroom management techniques to control students towards effective and meaningful learning during instruction (Kolawole, 2004).
Meaningful teaching and learning cannot be achieved in a classroom environment characterized by noise making and other distractions by students. The academic achievement of students of a particular classroom can be attributed to the teachers ability to manage and control the classroom during instruction. Oyira (2006) reported that the variables that measures` the classroom learning environment as perceived by students actually predicts their attitude towards schooling and academic performance.
All educational plans of a school involving teaching and learning takes place in the classroom. According to Kyriacou (2005) the classroom is the meeting point for both teachers and students where curricular activities are implemented. Educational objectives cannot be fully achieved without the use of conducive classroom environment. The classroom is characterized by a network of interpersonal relationships directed at the attainment of educational goals. Oyira, (2006) refers interpersonal relationship as the reciprocal behaviour that occurs between individuals such as exchange of information, exchange of expression and mutual activities. Good classroom environment must be well ventilated, fully supplied with chairs and desks, have adequate spatial arrangement, have sizeable chalkboard, good floors, beautiful walls and lightings (Kolawole, 2004). A good classroom environment facilitates desirable behaviour and attitude among students and thus enhancing their academic performance positively. Such an environment provides avenue for effective teacher/students and students/students interaction.
Teacher classroom management is a prerequisite for achieving instructional objectives and safeguarding the well being of students for whom the teaching and learning activities are centered (Ogunu, 2000). Teacher classroom management entails planning, supervising, controlling and coordinating the activities of students in teaching –learning process. According to Grieser (2007), successful teacher classroom management enhances students questioning and exploration only if the learning environment is conducive. Teacher classroom management techniques as used in this study, refers to tactics adopted by teachers to ensure decorum in the classroom and thus create a healthy and conducive atmosphere for learning.
Management on the other hand, can be seen as the process of designing and maintaining any setting in which people work in groups for the purpose of accomplishing predetermined goals. The idea of “any setting” equally indicates that management is applicable to all establishments which do not exonerate educational setting. The Oxford dictionary (6th edition) defines management as the act of running or controlling or skill of dealing with people or situations in any way.
Teacher classroom management is the term used by teachers to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly despite disruptive behavior by students. The term also implies that the prevention of disruptive behavior. It is possibly the most difficult aspect of teaching for many teachers; indeed experienced problems in this area cause some to leave teaching altogether.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In Nigerian secondary schools, the most common problem reported by teachers is those that relate to behavior management in the classroom (Offorma, 1994). The evidence is irrefutable, surveys of graduates‟ education schools and colleges indicate that sometimes in an attempt to maintain order in the classroom sometimes teachers can actually make the problem worse which leads to known implications such as; lackadaisical attitude towards learning, loss of interest in the subject and in general a poor academic performance of such a child. Considering this observation, one wonders the extent these teachers are aware of and apply research supported classroom behavior management skills.
It has also been observed that students no longer have interest in education. Since teacher classroom management is a keystone for students learning and has been cited by virtually every researcher and reviewer who looked at the relationship between educational practices and student results (Idu, 2003).
If the school authorities and teachers emphasize more on how to implement teacher classroom management skills perhaps these problems stated above could be minimized. However, there is a need to determine the strategies teachers perceive to be effective in handling disruptive behavior in secondary schools, therefore this research work will look into better ways of implementing effective management strategies which aid in the improvement of students and also how the interest of students in the subject could be regained.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to examine assessment of teacher classroom management in Nigeria. Basically the study will look into:
- The classroom techniques that are appropriate for students’ learning.
- The relationship between teacher classroom management and students academic performance.
- Strategies for enhancing student’s performance through effective teacher classroom management.
1.4 Research Questions
The study is guided by the following research questions:
- What are the classroom techniques that are appropriate for students’ learning?
- Is there any relationship between teacher classroom management and students academic performance?
- What are the strategies for enhancing student’s performance through effective teacher classroom management?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following hypotheses were developed for the study:
Ho1: There is no significant influence of teachers’ qualification on students’ academic performance in Secondary School.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of the study are stated below
The school administrators: The findings from the study will enlighten them on the factors affecting teacher classroom management and control on students’ academic performance in Secondary School.
Teachers: The study will serve as a guide to teachers on how strategically enhance teacher classroom management and as such district education officers, district inspectors of schools to realize the effects of poor teacher classroom management on students’ performance.
School Proprietors: it will enable secondary school proprietors to be able to plan systematically for the provision of good classroom which enhance students’ academic performance
Researchers: It will contribute to the existing body of knowledge and will help other researchers when working on related issues.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study covers all the teachers who are currently working in Secondary schools located within Education District II Lagos State. Only the aspect of influence of teachers’ classroom management styles and students’ academic performance in public secondary school will be covered.
1.8 Operational Definition of terms
The under listed terms are relevant to this research study:
Teacher classroom management: Teacher classroom management is a term used by teachers to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly despite disruptive behavior by students.
Student: Student is a person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in secondary school.
Teacher: A teacher or schoolteacher is a person who provides education for students.
Job Performance: This is the work related activities expected of an employee and how well those activities were executed.
Classroom: A room or place especially in a school in which classes are conducted.
Secondary School: A secondary school is a school in which student receive higher education from the ages of about eleven to eighteen.
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ASSESSMENT OF TEACHER CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA