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Full Project-ADMINISTRATIVE AND SOCIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN SPORTS IN SOUTH EAST GEO- POLITICAL ZONE OF NIGERIA

ADMINISTRATIVE AND SOCIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN SPORTS IN SOUTH EAST GEO- POLITICAL ZONE OF NIGERIA

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

Background to the Study

Sports is an integral part of physical education which involves training of the mind and body through physical  activities.  Participation in sports and recreation serves as a medium for developing desirable attitudes and behaviours essential for one’s wellbeing and for improving performance, among others. So, sports should be food for all.

In order to ensure sports for all; “the  sports for all movement” was adopted in the mid-1970s in Europe. According to Fu (1998), The concept of sports for all was adopted in Europe as a long term objective by the council of Europe, and was aimed at encouraging the population at large to become more active in sports. The concept of sports for all was an attempt to eradicate all the discriminations and dominations in sports and to declare it an  entitlement for everybody. With regard to women participation in sports, this concept as    an ideal seems to have proved difficult to be achieved in reality in some countries of the world.

The  involvement  of  women  in  sports  continues  to  be  a  concern  for researchers  and  practitioners  from  a  variety  of  disciplines.  Attracting  and retaining women in sports because of  health and obesity concerns (Brustad, 1996), adolescent risk protective factors (Guest & Schneider, 2003),the need to challenge  gendered  assumptions (Claringbould  & Knoppers,  2008),  and  the need to improve the under representation of women in coaching and sports administration  (Acosta  &  Carpenter,  2006),have  been  some of the  special concerns of many researchers. In all cases, investigators seem to have been interested  in  uncovering  the  factors  related  to  the  enduring involvement of women in sports and physical activity.

Administration is  the  way  an  organization,  through  working  with people, makes decisions and initiates actions to achieve its purposes and goals. This refers to a human activity involving the functions or tasks to be performed, the formal organization within which  administration must operate, the work group or groups with which the administration must be concerned and the leader or leaders within the organization. According to Asagba (1992), administration is the means by which common goals are achieved through cooperative efforts. Nwankwo (1996) is of the opinion that administration is the process of working through others to efficiently accomplish organizational goals.

Sports administration according to    Uwa & Ogu (2007)     are activities carried out in sports organisation with the sole aim of harnessing functions and responsibilities  of  position  holders  so  that  goals  and  objectives  of  sports organization can be achieved with  minimal strain and  maximum  efficiency. Sports administration in  essence  requires  close  supervision  of  the facilities, materials,  supplies  and  equipment  essential  to  the  life  of  sports   as  an organization.  It  also  implies  a  local  formulation  of  policies  and  effective operation of the organization. In sports, administrative positions take different shapes.  They  include  coaches,  sport  psychologists,  officials  in  the  sports ministry,   Directors  of   sports  and   physical  education   personnel.   Sports administration therefore, involves the process of planning, directing, organizing, evaluating and controlling all the activities of a group for effective achievement of the stated objectives of the sports industry.

In order to ensure total development in sports and in order to achieve sports for all, there must be effective and efficient sports administration which operates in efficient sports organization, an administration capable of organizing sports without discriminations, attempting to eradicate  dominations in sports and making it open for all. Onohwakpor (2008), states that sports organization entails the responsibilities of administering sports in terms of scouting for and grooming of athletes,  training coaches, provision of facilities and equipment, sourcing and managing funds, records and information management, personnel and  other  allied  matters.  In  essence,  efficient  sports   organization  begets effective  sports   administration. The     writer further  states that effective organization of sports therefore is important for promoting  excellence in the field of sports by arranging  physical activity programmes for all categories of people without discriminations and encouraging mass participation in physical activity  and  all  forms  of  sports  from  the  grassroots  level  with  a  view  to discovering budding talents.

The Sociological factors refer to society and its influence. The influence takes place through  the process known as Socialization which    is used by sociologists, social psychologists, anthropologists, politicians and educationists to  refer to  the process  of inheriting norms,  customs and  ideologies. It may provide the individual with the skills and habits necessary for participating in activities within their own society; a society itself is formed through a plurality of  shared  norms,  customs,  values,   traditions,  social  roles,  symbols  and languages.  Socialization  is  thus  the  means  by  which   social   and  cultural continuity is attained.

At birth, infants need to be socialized into the culture of the society by their parents, teachers, and others.  The general process of acquiring culture is referred to as socialization (Dennis O’Neil, 2009).  During socialization, people learn the language of the culture they are born into as well as the roles they are to play in life.  For instance, girls learn how to be daughters, sisters, friends, wives, and mothers.  In addition, they learn about the occupational roles that society has in stock for them. People also learn and usually adopt our culture’s norms through the socialization process.

It  is  evident  that  society  influences  its  members  to  learn  and  adopt attitudes, which are acceptable in each culture. During infancy, childhood and adolescence, attitudes,       are       formed through interaction with the world. According to Sanstroern as cited in Davies (1996), the adoption of attitudes and behaviours in relation to sports is often associated with the need to be accepted by parents, community, and the society interacted with on daily basis. Harris (1994)   states   that the  family is   generally   responsible for  early sports socialization, and interest in sports is often preceded by the parent’s interest.

Globally,   researchers have noted   that the cultural beliefs, socializing agents  such  as  family,  media,  religion  and  peer  groups,  nature  of  sports administration, status of the economy and misconceptions directly or indirectly influence women on daily basis in their choice to either participate in sports or not. Ikhioya (1999) reported that women in Nigerian universities are not active in sports due to their beliefs that involvement in sports is not conducive to their physical  wellbeing. Dike (2005) and Okonkwor (2000) also presented factors that negatively influence the female undergraduates’ participation in sports as: academic pressure; body weight; personality factors  such as lack of interest; level  of  skill,  development of  masculine  characteristics  and  accessibility  to facilities.  In  the  same  vein,  Okonkwor(2002)  concluded  that  psychological, societal  and  cultural  biases   play vital  roles in  women getting  involved  in competitive sports and that culture and religions are almost inseparable in their effects on  women’  participation in  sports.                   Women Participation in  Sports, according to Okonkwor (2005), is retarded by imaginary health  problems and physical misconceptions. Ajayi (2002) noted that gender role discrimination is also  one  of the factors that hinder effective participation of our females in sports.

Although participation in sports is not compulsory, there is need to ensure that the  population at large, men and women alike experience the benefits prevalent in sports. This can only be achieved by pin pointing those variables that act as negative determinants  to  participation especially as it pertains to women.  This is because available  research findings  from  Adeyanju (2005),

Ikhioya (1999) and Okonkwor (2002) indicated that though there have been transformations  in  women’s  sports  in  Nigeria,  great  changes  are  yet  to  be observed. In the light of all these, the    researcher is prompted by the fact that there are still some gaps to be filled concerning women participation in sports.

Statement of the Problem

Researchers observed that women are    poorly represented in sports as players, coaches, advisers and as team administrators. The under-representation of  women  in  sports  remains          an  issue  of  national  concern.  According  to Adeyanju (2005),observation of who is actively  involved in sports in Nigeria generally indicated that males constitute the greatest number either as players, coaches and administrators. Okonkwor (2002) and Adeyanju (2005), indicate that though there has been transformations in women’s sports in Nigeria, great changes are yet to be observed. In  essence women participation in sports in Nigeria is not yet adequate.

Most of the Igbo women in South East geo-political zone of      Nigeria, engage in farming, traditional games such as dance and do well in house chores, that they  now see them as forms of  sports. It seems that Some women are still under the influence of         the long  existing culture which presents women as: chattels; as those who should not engage in  physical/strenuous activities and those  who  should  not  express themselves.  As  a  result,  some  women  show apathy to sports and do not take sports as a priority in spite of the benefits in sports  participation.  Therefore  there  is  need  to  ensure  continued  positive changes in behaviours toward women participation in active sports. Women involvement  in  sports   should  be  improved.  It  was  on  the  basis  of  this submission that this study has been undertaken.

There  is  evidence  in  the  literature  concerning  sociological  factors  of women participation in sports. There is not much evidence, however concerning the administrative and sociological determinants that deter women participation in sports among Igbo women of South Eastern Nigeria.  The problem of this study is derived from this apparent gap in knowledge and the worthwhileness of empirical data in this regard  as  a  means  of  promoting  the  desired  women participation  in sports.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this  study is to examine the negative administrative and sociological determinants of women participation in sports in South East Geo- Political Zone of Nigeria. Specifically this study aims at ascertaining the extent of:

  1. 1. Sports equipment / facilities as negative determinants of women participation in sports  in South East Geo Political zone of Nigeria.
  2. 2. Quality of sports personnel as a negative determinant of women participation in sports in South East Geo Political zone of Nigeria.
  3. 3. Level of funding of sports as a negative determinant of women

Participation in sports in South East Geo Political zone of Nigeria.

  1.  Rewards offered/ incentives as negative determinants of women participation in sports in South East Geo Political zone of Nigeria.
  2.  Peer group influence as a negative determinant of women participation in sports in South East Geo Political zone of Nigeria.
  3.  Family background as a negative determinant of women participation in sports in  South East Geo Political zone of Nigeria.
  4.  Religion influence as a negative determinant of women participation in sports in South East Geo Political zone of Nigeria.

Significance of the Study

This   study   has   created   an   awareness    of   the   Administrative   and sociological  determinants  of  women  participation  in  sports.  Hopefully  this would contribute towards helping the government desire for the improvement of women participation in sports.

This study contains useful  information, which can put systems into place for  nurturing  women  interest  in  sports  and  eventually  have  more  Nigerian women (especially women from the South East geo-political zone) representing the country at an international level. This is possible if the government imbibe the recommendations made from the findings of the study.

The  results of this     study    could provide useful data for enunciating appropriate policies concerning  women participation in sports in the South East geo-political zone and Nigeria in general to meet international standard.

Changing    negative    attitudes    of    people    regarding    women    sports participants might be one way of promoting women in the field of sports. The information gathered from this study would to a great extent help in achieving this if  this research work is exposed in the school library shelf and  on Internet for people’ consumption.

It is also hoped that the result of the study would provide vital and useful information that will improve sports administration and management in Nigeria, as regards, the administrators ensuring that domination and discriminations do not prevail in sports especially as pertains to  rewarding and  motivating the athletes.

This study will be relevant to students and lecturers in the department of Human Kinetics and Health Education and other sports related departments in institutions of higher learning in Nigeria who can embark on further research on administrative and sociological determinants of women participation in sports, in other setting

Scope of the Study

The study investigated the  administrative  determinants of women participation in sports such as sports facilities and equipment; qualities of sports personnel; funding of sports and  reward offered/incentives then sociological determinants of  women  participation  in  sports  such  as peer   group  influence;  family background;  and  religious  influence.  The  study  is  delimited  to  the  female athletes and female officials of the five States (Anambra, Imo, Enugu, Ebonyi and Abia State) that make up the South East geo political zone of Nigeria.

Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study;

  1. To what extent are sports equipment/facilities perceived to be negative determinants of women participation in sports in south east geo-political zone of Nigeria?
  2. To what extent are sports personnel believed to be negative determinant of women participation in sports in south east geo-political zone of Nigeria?
  3. To what extent is funding perceived to be negative determinant of women participation in sports in south east zone of Nigeria?
  4. What is the extent to which rewards/incentives in sports are  perceived to be negative determinants of women participation in sports in south east zone of Nigeria?
  5. To what  extent  are  peer  group  Influences     perceived  to  be  negative determinants  of  women participation in  sports in  south east zone of Nigeria?
  6. What is the extent to which    family background is perceived to  be negative determinant of women participation in sports in south east zone of Nigeria?
  7. To what  extent  is     religion  perceived  to  be  negative  determinant  of women participation in sports in south east zone of Nigeria?

Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses which were tested at 0.05 level of significance were  formulated to guide the study.

  1. There is no significant difference in the mean scores of athletes and sports officials in their  perceptions of sports equipment/facilities as negative determinants of women participation in sports.
  2. There is no significant difference in the mean scores of athletes and sports officials  in  their  perceptions  of  sports  personnel  as  negative determinant of  women participation in sports.
  3. There is no significant difference in the mean scores of athletes and sports officials in their perceptions of funding as  a negative determinant of  women participation in sports.
  4. There is no significant difference in the mean scores of athletes and sports officials in their  perceptions of rewards/incentives as   negative determinants of  women participation in sports.
  5. There is no significant difference in the mean scores of athletes and sports officials in their  perceptions of influences from    peer group as negative determinants of women participation in sports.
  6. There is no significant difference in the mean scores of athletes and sports officials in their perception of family background as a    negative determinant  of  women participation in sports.
  7. There is no significant difference in the mean scores of athletes and sports officials in their perception of religion as a  negative determinant of  women participation in sports.

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