FULL PROJECT – FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BUSINESS STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The study examined “factors militating against effective teaching and learning of Business Studies in secondary schools”. The study objectives are to: Insufficient numbers of qualified teachers affects students’ mass failure in Business Studies subjects; Unavailability of instructional materials for teaching of Business Studies subject affects students’ mass failure in Business Studies subjects; The previous socio-economic backgrounds of the students affect them in studying Business Studies subject; and the attitude and interest of students towards the nature of Business Studies subject contribute deeply to their mass failure in SSCE. The study employed the descriptive survey design. The nature of the problem was duly considered in the study. The research design used for this study is the survey design. The reason why this design was adopted was because the researcher would make use of the primary data obtained through the questionnaire. The area of the study covers students of five selected secondary schools located within Eti-Osa Local Government Area, Lagos, Lagos. The target population consists of public secondary school students in Eti-Osa Local Government Area, Lagos. Simple random sampling technique was adopted for the study. The researcher useD a total of one hundred (100) students from five (5) selected public secondary schools in Eti-Osa Local Government Area, Lagos. The research instrument used was questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed using simple percentage while hypotheses were tested using Chi-Square Statistics. The study recommended that Government both at the federal and state levels should employ more qualified teachers for secondary schools to ensure efficiency and optimal performance in Business Studies subject. The study also recommended that Teachers should develop positive relationship with students and stress classroom activities, that will involve active teaching-learning process and students participation in the class. The study concludes that insufficient numbers of qualified Business Studies teachers and instructional materials for teaching affects Business Studies subject.
1.1 Background of the Study
Business studies is a unit of vocational and technical education. According to, Esene (1997) and Ohiwerei (2005), this programme started late in Nigerian educational system. Vocational business studies started as commercial education about 1930 at Oshogbo in the then western region now Osun State with the establishment of clerical training centers that were needed in the office. By 1995 both government and privately owned day and evening business schools were established in various part of the country. According to Esene and Ohiwerei (2005), business subjects have not been popular in Nigerian Secondary Schools because of the bias against vocational education. The public perception of business subjects, which form part of vocational education, is education for the school dropouts. This is further reinforced by the attitude of Nigerian parents who prefer the conventional grammar schools to business schools whose curricular were directed towards the training of secretarial and clerical personnel. This erroneous impression was corrected by the release of the National Policy on Education. The Policy, which recommended the 6-3-3-4 educational systems, was instrumental to the inclusion of business subjects in the secondary school curriculum.
Notwithstanding, it has been observed that there are many problems militating against the teaching and learning of Business Studies in Post primary schools as enumerated by many writers on problem of Business Studies in Nigeria. They attributed the high level of failures in Business Studies to lack of students concentration in the classroom, their view steamed from observed students performance in Business Studies.
Thus, observed failure could be as a result of inability of the students to understand economic terms, lack of finance to buy relevant textbooks, inadequate teachers, inability of the students’ to interpret Business Studies table and graph, inappropriate and ineffective method of teaching, lack of control over the attitudes of students and teachers and others which have contributed to low level of teaching Business Studies in secondary schools.
Okorie (1979: 152) suggested that for the effective teaching to take place, the skillful teacher needs to use the many effective method and techniques effectively because in them his success and failure depends. He further emphasized that the success in the use of methods depends on the intelligent analysis of educational purposes, pupil in the class and the curriculum content of the moment.
The implementation of the 6-3-3-4 systems began in 1982 and brought many reforms into the educational system in Nigeria. At the junior secondary school level pre-vocational subjects were introduced to the curriculum while vocational education were introduced to the senior secondary level. The focus of pre-vocational was to expose students at the junior secondary school level to the world of work through exploration. Such exposure will enable junior secondary school students make intelligent career choice and also intelligent consumption patterns. Among the pre-vocational subjects are practical Agriculture, Home economics, Introductory technology and Business Studies.
Business studies consist of aspects of Book-keeping, shorthand, typewriting, commerce, office practice and computer, which are integrated. The National Board for Technical Education, while supporting the integration reported:
“The new concept of pre-vocational courses at the junior Secondary school level is different from the traditional one. For example, the business studies components transcend the narrow commercial knowledge, which restricted pupils to take one of typewriting, shorthand, accounting, economics, etc. for five years. The new approach emphasizes the integrated nature of business studies and includes modules of secretarial skills(i.e. shorthand and typewriting), accounting, economics, business methods, commerce etc.”
Ekpenyoung (1997) does not seem to agree that Business studies is integrated. He reports that integration has become the order of the day in Nigerian education curriculum design. Apart from the science and vocational education, where integration has had a reasonably long history, one now hears of integration in virtually all other disciplines, particularly at the lower level of education. The now discarded Nigerian Certificates in Education (NCE) business and technical education curricula were all integrated in line with the JSS pre-vocational curricular development by the Federal Ministry of Education in association with the former Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Center (Federal Ministry of Education, 1985). As hinted above, the appeal for an integrated curriculum derives from CESAC’s original project on curriculum integration. However, the wholesale adoption of this approach to curriculum design in the Nigerian educational system seems to give the impression that the approach is sacrosanct, that its basic assumption are easily understood by average classroom teachers, or that every so-called integration curriculum can actually qualify as such.
A few moment reflection is sufficient to reveal that every society faces crucial issues and problem in education which have very serious economic angles that cannot be overlooked easily for instance, the production of education as well as the acquisition of education both require the use of large qualities of scare resources (Production of education requires conducive classrooms, administrative blocks, personnel, librarians, laboratories while the acquisition of education requires expenditures on tuition fees, book, travels, uniform, lodging etc. and students time.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Business Studies is been taught in secondary schools in Eti-Osa Local Government Area of Lagos State and it has been observed that students in government secondary school Ajah performed poorly in the 2012 May/June Senior Certificate Examination. It has also been observed that there are lots of factors militating against the effective teaching and learning of Business Studies in secondary schools in the study area.
poor performance in Secondary School Certificate Examination (WAEC) is caused by many factors such as; students ineffective study techniques, quality of teachers and method of teaching, the parents inability to provide useful materials like textbooks, exercise books and school fees and problem of inadequate instructional materials for teaching and learning of Business Studies in schools.
However, the pivoting problems of Business Studies is complex and can minimally be solved if the teachers and students change their attitude towards teaching and learning in schools generally and to Business Studies in particular.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
Study has been undertaken with a view to identify the problems involved in the teaching and learning of Business Studies in secondary schools and Eti-Osa Local Government Area and factors responsible for these problems. Specifically, the study sought to find out if:-
- Insufficient numbers of qualified teachers affects students’ mass failure in Business Studies subjects.
- Unavailability of instructional materials for teaching of Business Studies subject affects students’ mass failure in Business Studies subjects,
- The previous socio-economic backgrounds of the students affect them in studying Business Studies subject.
- The attitude and interest of students towards the nature of Business Studies subject contribute deeply to their mass failure in SSCE.
In assessing the purpose of the study, this research project will answer the following questions:
- Does insufficient numbers of qualified Business Studies teachers affects students’ mass failure in Business Studies subject?
- Does unavailability of instructional materials for teaching of Business Studies subject affects students’ mass failure in Business Studies subjects?
- Does previous socio-economic background of the students affect them in studying Business Studies subject?
- How would interest of students towards the nature of Business Studies subject contribute deeply to their mass failure in SSCE?
In carrying out this research work the following theoretical statements are buttressed to serve as a direction on which the work will be premised:
- H0: Insufficient numbers of qualified Business Studies teachers does not affects students’ mass failure of students in Business Studies subject
H1: Insufficient numbers of qualified Business Studies teachers and instructional materials teaching affects Business Studies subject.
- H0:There is no significant relationship between availability of instructional materials for teaching of Business Studies subject and students’ mass failure in Business Studies subjects.
H1: There is significant relationship between availability of instructional materials for teaching of Business Studies subject and students’ mass failure in Business Studies subjects.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The research work seeks to examine the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of Business Studies in secondary. The study will be limited to five selected schools in Eti-Osa Local Government Area, Lagos.
1.7 Significance of the Study
There is need to apply knowledge from Business Studies to many area of our life in other to benefit the society. The achievements of the objective necessitates an understanding of the basic teaching of Business Studies. We cannot attain national objectives in the light of poor or average performances in examinations and lack of application of Business Studies to life students.
Without doubt, improved teaching and learning of Business Studies will spur us into greater heights. This study will help to make our educational administrators to see the need to have qualified Business Studies teachers to handle the subject effectively for the benefit of the students and society at large.
This study will help to sensitize the educational administrators to appreciate the need to make available the necessary materials, example, chalkboard, graphs, audio-visual materials etc. that will enhance effective learning of Business Studies if they are not available.
This study will if need be direct the Business Studies teachers’ attention to the need for them to adopt more appropriate teaching method in order to bring about the above mentioned desirable experience in the learners. This study will have a great significance because it is going to provide information to Business Studies teachers for formation and evaluation of their plans.
It will be useful to learners for through this, they will be able to identify the factors militating against the proper teaching and learning of Business Studies. This study will help to produce sound Business Studies students that will function very well in the economy such as:
(a) Knowing how to use scarce productive resources with alternative uses to meet prescribed ends and be able to apply the principles of Business Studies.
(b) The product of Business Studies that should be able to pick employment within a limited employment opportunity in any economy.
This work will serve as a source of encouragement to students and teachers that will come across it. It is hoped that the findings of this study would also form the basis for further research work by future researchers on this issue.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Business Studies: Business studies is an academic subject taught in schools and at university level in many countries. Its study combines elements of accountancy, finance, marketing, organizational studies, human resource management, and operations.
Instructional Materials: These are materials that are used to aid in the transference of information from one student to another in Education arena.
Teaching: the act or profession of a person who teaches.
Job Performance: This is the work related activities expected of an employee and how well those activities were executed.
Remuneration: Reward for employment in the form of pay, salary, or wage, including allowances, benefits (such as medical plan, pension plan), bonuses, cash incentives, and monetary value of the noncash incentives.
Condition of Work: Regulations governing on-the-job standards and conditions of work such as those affecting health and safety of workers.
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FULL PROJECT – FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BUSINESS STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS