THE IMPACT OF IN-SERVICE TRAINING ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA
(A STUDY OF DANGOTE FLOUR MILL APAPA, LAGOS, APAPA, LAGOS)
1.1 Background to the Study
The history of training can be traced to industrial revolution in the eighteen century when technological advancements created an ongoing need for workers training. On the other hand, training and development evolved when Fredrick Taylor recognized that workers are important and efficient as machine. Taylor asserted that it is the workers and management that set the pace for production. Hence, there is need for manpower training and development in order to enhance the organizational predetermined goal. Chris (2010) asserts that “scientific management is not a collection of technique only to increase efficiency, but rather a philosophy of being accomplished by workers training and development”. In Nigeria, the origin of manpower training and development can be traced to the Ashby Commission set up in 1959 to conduct an investigation into Nigeria’s personnel need in the areas of post-secondary organization certificate and higher education over the next twenty years.
Apart from the aforementioned, Abeeha and Bariha (2012) asserts that there are various federal and state training centers all over the country. The private sectors also established their own training centers and organizations while many others depend on private consultants and university organized training programmes and seminars as well as executive development and general management courses run by the Nigeria Institutes of Management (NIM) and that of Institute of Personnel Management (IPM). It is pertinent to note that there must be continuous reviews of manpower training to ensure that there is effectiveness throughout the organization so as to enable the organization achieve its objectives. It is also believed that a vast majority of new employees have not been prepared to perform the job they may encounter in their organizations irrespective of the technical or professional education they received. According to Byrne (1999) “there is therefore need for training and retraining of the workers tc perform new jobs and adapt to changing technology”. Even though there is an avalanche of empirical studies on the effect of training and development on productivity, the existing evidence suggests that research in this area is promising. Most of the studies reviewed were carried outside the shores of Nigeria, while others were mostly done in the financial sector. The few studies conducted on the educational sector did not focus on training and development. Unlike educational sector, most Nigerian sectors could not survive the recent global financial crisis. Meanwhile, most of the challenges that had threatened the foundations of the educational sector in Nigeria had been squarely blamed on the lack of employees training in the sector. This study is therefore motivated by the need to fill these gaps.
The main object of every organization management is to improve its performance but it can never be possible without the efficient performance of workers. This is in consonance with the submission of Chukwunenye and Igboke (2011) that “the performance management system came into effect as a management reform to address and redress concerns, organizations had about performance”.
Workers’ in-service training and development are essential work activities that contribute significantly to the overall effectiveness and profitability of organizations. The effectiveness and success of a organization lies on the people who form the workforce and work within the organization (Cole, 2002). The observation of Cole (2002) is that “it is the developed human capital of a organization that constitutes its performance. It follows, therefore, that workers’ productivity in respect of achieving organization goals and successes is a function of the quantum of the relevant skills and knowledge, and positive work attitude workers have been able to acquire from constant manpower development programmes whether through on the job training or in-house training programmes of out of work training courses they attended”.
Workers’ Productivity refers to the accomplishment of workers or mere working effectiveness. In an organization, efficiency and productivity are mostly realized at the levels of organization, process and individuals and the interrelationships among these will define the vantage points of the organization. In contributing to the overall goal of the organization, training and development processes are implemented as this benefits not just the organization but also the individuals making up that organization (Davenport, 1998). At its core is the improvement in the performance of individuals participating in training and development activities. Learning is mostly achieved through in-service training and development therefore means to be translated as organizational resource by which the people acquire, infer and utilized (Gutek, 2007).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Many studies have been conducted on training and development and their effects on workers’ productivity. These studies were conducted in hospitals, manufacturing companies (Davenport, 1998), banks and insurance companies.
The dearth of similar studies in public secondary organization settings motivated the researchers to consider investigating the impact of in-service training and staff development on workers’ job performance and optimal productivity in impact of In- service Training on organizational performance. This is against the backdrop that there is a popular belief in Nigeria that public workers tend to be less concerned with optimal job productivity in as much as their salaries are paid at the end of the month. In addition, there appears to be scarcity of existing literature on in-service training and staff development and workers performance and job productivity in public secondary organization settings. The study is therefore necessary to fill the gap in this area.
Gutek (2007) adopted mean and grand mean to test the relationship between training and development and workers’ productivity. Gutek (2007) adopted t-test while Onuka and adopted chi-square to test the impact of training and development on workers’ productivity.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of In-service Training on organizational performance in Nigeria: A Case Study of Dangote Flour Mill, Apapa, Lagos. Other specific purposes include:
- Assess the effects of staff in-service training on employees performance in Dangote Flour Mill;
- Review of how human resource management styles affects in-service staff training on organization performance in Dangote Flour Mill;
- Examine the challenges encountered by human resource management in employees’ recruitment and placement.;
- Examine whether employees’ in-service training and development enhances work efficiency.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions have been formulated to guide the study:
- To what extent will staff in-service training on employees’ performance in Dangote Flour Mill?
- How will human resource management styles affect staff in-service training on organization performance in Dangote Flour Mill?
- What are the challenges encountered by human resource management in employees’ recruitment and placement;
- How will employees’ in-service training and development enhances work efficiency?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses have been formulated and will be tested using appropriate statistical tool analysis.
HO1: There is no significant relationship between staff in-service training and employees’ performance in Dangote Flour Mill.
HO2: There is no significant relationship between human resource management styles affects in-service staff training on organization performance in Dangote Flour Mill;
HO3: Challenges encountered by human resource management does not have effect on employees’ recruitment and placement;
HO4: Employees’ in-service training and development does not enhances work efficiency.
1.6 Significance of Study
In-service training is becoming very popular among workers generally and it helps in the internal generation of funds for instance for organizations who run such programmes for workers. At the same time, it keeps the management busy throughout the session. In a way they help to improve the workers’ knowledge with the bid that may become more productive workers.
The society is changing fast. New methods, materials and equipment are being introduced into teaching. The world is getting nuclear. The single assessment has given way to continuous assessment which is tasking. Audio visual is now being used everywhere.
Crude and primitive methods of teaching have given way for mechanized teaching hence there is the need to move with time.
The cost incurred on in-service training by individuals as well as government in terms of workers’ absence is enormous hence it is necessary to assess the worth of training in terms of worker productivity.
The significance of this study will therefore run thus:
- to recommend to the government to sponsor such in-service programmes if it is found to have impact on worker productivity:
- to provide necessary information on whether or not workers in general perform better after in-service training
- to find out whether those management who attended un-service training perform better than those who fail to attend; and
- to form a basis for further comprehensive evaluation work on effect of in-service training on worker productivity particularly in an organization.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study examines “the impact of In-service Training on organizational performance in Nigeria” with specific reference to Dangote Flour Mill Apapa, Lagos.
1.8 Definition of Terms
In-service Training: A special educational exercise done while in service to improve on one’s knowledge, ability and attitude on a given job which in turn improve one’s performance.
Productivity: Is an assessment of the efficiency of a worker.
Impact: The action of one object coming forcibly into contact with another.
Organization: Organization is an organized group of people with a particular purpose, such as a business or government department.
Organizational performance: Organizational performance comprises the actual output or results of an organization as measured against its intended outputs (or goals and objectives).
Employee performance: Is the timely, effective and efficient completion of mutually agreed tasks by the employee, as set out by the employer. It is also the record of outcomes achieved, for each job function, during a specified period of time.
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